Restrictive expressions in the text of Qur’an
This paper deals with research in restriction (qasr) as one of the styles of Qur’an expression. In addition to providing definition of restriction, division to categories/subcategories, it analyzes individual ayaths of Qur’an that manifest restriction in all its forms and shapes. Since restrictive clause includes affirmation (itbat) and negation (nafy), two categories of negation may be determined in restrictive clauses based on the way how negation is realized: real restriction (qasr haqiqi) and supplementary restriction (qasr idafi). Real restriction is also divided into two categories based on conformity of its negation with out of language reality (waqi’harigi): realized restriction (qasr tahaqiqi) and assertion-based restriction (qasr iddi a i), marked also as hyperbolic restriction (qasr mabni ‘ala mubalaga) or metaphoric restriction (qasr magi).
Supplementary restriction (qasr idafi), depending on the relation of interlocutor (muhatab) toward the subject of expression, is dived into three categories: separating restriction (qasr al-ifrad), reverse restriction (qasr al- qalb), and determining restriction (qasr al-ta ‘yin). Restriction is divided also on the basis of existence of two sides of restrictive expression: restriction in which an attribute is limited to a concept (qasr al-sifa ‘ala al-mawsif) and restriction in which the concept is limited to feature (qasr al-mawsif ‘ala al-sifa).
Through an analysis of Qur’an ayaths and on the basis of the mentioned types of restriction, the paper tries to show the functional and aesthetic dimensions of restriction expressed through various syntactical forms characterized by succinctness, conciseness, and preciseness of the Qur’an text. Each of them, in their own way, expresses hidden and especially deep meanings, thus producing a strong effect on both the interlocutor and the recipient of the message of Qur’an.