Permutative (al-badal) and Apposition (ʻaṭf al-bayān) in the Arabic Language - Similarities and Differences
This paper examines two secondary elements of a clause in the Arabic language, namely the permutative and the apposition. The permutative is a noun complement that follows the noun as the appositive and tries to additionally explain it or even take its place, which justifes the semantics of the term badal (permutation). Furthermore, the rules say that a non-derived noun can act as the permutative, and owing to the different semantics it creates, four different types of the permutative are defined and they all keep case agreement with the antecedent in all forms. The apposition in the Arabic language is characterised by the function of additional explanation of the antecedent with which it shares the same case inflexion, which brings it closer to the permutative, but what separates them is the fact that the permutative is independent in its semantic content and it can replace the antecedent, while the clause stays syntactically correct. Without an ambition to make a serious comparison and with the sole aim of a better understanding of the apposition in the Arabic language, by comparing terminological solution in two separate language systems, we will try to justify the attitude that an equal sign between the terms apposition in the Arabic language and the apposition in the Bosnian language cannot be put to the fullest extent. The apposition in the Bosnian language additionally explains the antecedent, following its inflexion, but it is a more general term than the latter, as opposed to the apposition in the Arabic language. Formally, they differ by the place they take within a syntagm in relation to the antecedent.