Influence of Islamic jurisprudence on the development of Arabic grammar
Usūl al fiqh or “foundation of Islamic law” had a special impact on development of theoretical basis of Arabic grammar (u¥ūl an-nõw) which lasted from its beginnings until encounter of Arabs with Greek philoso- phy and formal logic. This influence was manifested not only in the form of establishing sources of linguistic materials but also in methodology of solving linguistic phenomena. Besides, it was also manifested in the form of construction of grammatical rules.
Qur’an and õadīï, as the basic sources of Islamic legislation, as a part of linguistic practice (samā‘) together with speech of Arab (kalām al-‘Arab), present basic sources of linguistic material on which Arabic grammar was formed. Since language of Qur’an is speech of Allah s.w.t. language (kalām Allāh) it presents perfection of linguistic expression, the most important source of linguistic materials. However, õadīï as a speech of Messenger of Allah s.w.t. (kalām an-Nabī) did not have character of a source of linguistic material in the development of Arabic grammar as it had in Islamic jurisprudence as a source of Islamic legislation. It is a matter of dispute among grammaticalness whether the language of õadīï indeed presents speech of the prophet of Allah’s s.w.t. Prophet, since õadīï were transmitted according to meaning. Islamic jurisprudence had special influence in relation to the text as a source of linguistic material, its collection and research in establishing criteria in relation with time and place of its collection, critical attitude to its transmission, towards the text itself, the way of its use and interpretation, argumentation, and derivation of rules.
Islamic jurisprudence had a great impact to establishment of meth- odology of construction of grammar rules and implementation of other methods of their construction. An example of this was as was introduction of iğmā’ as consensus of grammarians and with regards to solution of certain linguistic issue and constructive grammatical rules. Introduction of analogy (qiyās) as a special way and method of construction of grammatical rules occurred under direct influence of methodology of Islamic law. Procedure of introduction of some linguistic phenomena in analogical procedure and derivation of rules after comparison of two linguistic phenomena had the same procedure as in Usūl al-fiqh.
Other methods of construction of grammatical rule which were treated as auxiliary were also from the methodology of Islamic legal sciences. That was the case with Isti¥õåb al-õål and Istiõsān. Isti¥õåb al-õål represents the establishment of grammatical rules in a way that certain linguistic issues regulate according to original grammatical rules if arguments for other treatment do not exist. Istihasan is used in cases when some linguistic phenomena cannot be put in relation with other sanctioned phenomena and in that case grammarian has a right, based on his personal scholarly intuition to sanction such phenomena without citing evidence.
Classification of some grammatical regulation into compulsory (wāğib), forbidden (mamnū‘), good (õasan) and bad (qabīõ) happened under the influence of Islamic jurisprudence. Similar is with the introduction of principle of predominant (tarğīõ) in order to reduce a numerous number of constructed grammatical rules.
- As-Suyūãī, al-Iqtiråõ..., str. 48; Fağğāl, al-I¥båõ fī šarõ al-Iqtiråõ, str. 47.